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Medical Dictionary Terms Beginning with G

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G (guanine)

G (guanine): G stands for guanine, one member of the base pair G-C (guanine-cytosine) in DNA. The other base pair in DNA is A-T (adenine-thymine).
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G proteins

G proteins: These molecules have been described as ôbiological traffic lights.ö Located inside the cell, G proteins are able respond to signals outside the cellùlight, smell, hormonesùand translate (transduce) these signals into action within the
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Gait: Manner of walking.
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Galactose: Sugar found in milk.
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Galactosemia: Inherited disorder due to defective metabolism (processing) of the sugar galactose. Galactosemia is one of the diseases in many newborn genetic screening panels. The disease (which can be fatal, if undetected) is treated by avoiding galac
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Gallbladder: A pear-shaped organ that stores bile. It is located below the liver.
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Gallium: A rare metal with the atomic weight of 69. There are several isotopic forms of gallium that differ from it in atomic weight. One is gallium-68 which is produced by cyclotrons and emits gamma rays. The citrate form of gallium-68 is used a
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Gallop rhythm

Gallop rhythm: Heart rhythm like the gallop of a horse.
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Gallstones: Stones in the gallbladder or in the duct leading from the gallbladder to the intestine. There are many types of gallstones.
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Gallstones and ERCP (Endoscopic Retrograde)

Gallstones and ERCP (Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography): A diagnostic procedure to examine diseases of the bile ducts, liver and pancreas. It is uncomfortable but not painful, is performed under intravenous sedation, usually without g
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Gamete: The sperm or egg. In humans, the gametes normally have 23 chromosomes.
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Ganglion: The 2nd century Roman physician Galen first used the word ganglion to denote a nerve complex. Ganglion currently refers to an aggregation of nerve cell bodies. Another use of the word ganglion is for a tendon cyst, commonly near the wrist.
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Gangrene: Gangrene is the state of death of tissue due to loss of adequate blood supply.
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Gareis-Mason syndrome

Gareis-Mason syndrome: An inherited (genetic) syndrome with characteristic features including (1) neurologically: mental retardation and aphasia (lack of speech); (2) limbs: adducted (clasped) thumbs, absent extensor pollicis longus and/or brevis muscl
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Gargoylism: From the French gargouille (waterspout), the word conveys the often-grotesque image of the medieval cathedral gargoyle. The term gargoylism was once applied to a condition today called Hurler syndrome.
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Gas chromatography (GC)

Gas chromatography (GC): A type of automated chromatography (a technique used to separate mixtures of substances) in which the mixture to be analyzed is vaporized and carried by an inert gas through a special column and thence to a detection devi
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Gas, intestinal

Gas, intestinal: The complaint referred to as &intestinal gas& is a common one and the discomfort can be quite significant. Everyone has gas and eliminates it by burping or passing it through the rectum. In many instances people think they ha
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Gas, laughing (nitrous oxide)

Gas, laughing (nitrous oxide): A gas that can cause general anesthesia. Nitrous oxide is sometimes given in the company of other anesthetic agents but it is not used today as the only anesthetic agent because the concentration of nitrous oxide needed to p
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Gastrectomy: Surgery to remove part of all of the stomach.
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Gastric: Having to do with the stomach.
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