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 Citalopram Hydrobromide Tablets, 10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg 

Suicidality and Antidepressant Drugs

Antidepressants increased the risk compared to placebo of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents and young adults in short-term studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Anyone considering the use of citalopram hydrobromide tablets or any other antidepressant in a child, adolescent or young adult must balance this risk with the clinical need. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction in risk with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older. Depression and certain other psychiatric disorders are themselves associated with increases in the risk of suicide. Patients of all ages who are started on antidepressant therapy should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality or unusual changes in behavior. Families and caregivers should be advised of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber. Citalopram is not approved for use in pediatric patients. (See PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use.) (See WARNINGS, Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk, PRECAUTIONS, Information for Patients and PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use.)

DESCRIPTION

Citalopram hydrobromide is an orally administered selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with a chemical structure unrelated to that of other SSRIs or of tricyclic, tetracyclic, or other available antidepressant agents. Citalopram Hydrobromide is a racemic bicyclic phthalane derivative designated (±)-1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carbonitrile,

Hydrobromide with the following structural formula:

The molecular formula is C20H22BrFN2O and its molecular weight is 405.35.

Citalopram hydrobromide occurs as a fine white to off-white powder. Citalopram hydrobromide is sparingly soluble in water and soluble in ethanol.

Citalopram hydrobromide is available as tablets.

Citalopram hydrobromide 10 mg tablets are film coated, capsule-shaped tablets containing citalopram hydrobromide in strengths equivalent to 10 mg citalopram base. The 10 mg tablets also contain the following inactive ingredients: copolyvidone, corn starch, glycerin, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, sodium starch glycolate, talc, and titanium dioxide. In addition, the 10 mg tablet also contains FD&C yellow no. 6 aluminum lake, and FD&C red no. 40 aluminum lake.

Citalopram hydrobromide 20 mg and 40 mg tablets are scored, biconvex, capsule-shaped, film coated tablets containing citalopram hydrobromide in strengths equivalent to 20 mg or 40 mg citalopram base. The 20 mg and 40 mg tablets also contain the following inactive ingredients: copolyvidone, corn starch, croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol and titanium dioxide. Iron oxide is used as coloring agent in the light pink (20 mg) tablet.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

 Pharmacodynamics 

The mechanism of action of citalopram hydrobromide as an antidepressant is presumed to be linked to potentiation of serotonergic activity in the central nervous system (CNS) resulting from its inhibition of CNS neuronal reuptake of serotonin (5-HT). In vitro and in vivo studies in animals suggest that citalopram is a highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with minimal effects on norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) neuronal reuptake. Tolerance to the inhibition of 5-HT uptake is not induced by long-term (14 day) treatment of rats with citalopram. Citalopram is a racemic mixture (50/50), and the inhibition of 5-HT reuptake by citalopram is primarily due to the (S)-enantiomer.

Citalopram has no or very low affinity for 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, dopamine D1 and D2, α1-, α2-, and β-adrenergic, histamine H1, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), muscarinic cholinergic, and benzodiazepine receptors. Antagonism of muscarinic, histaminergic and adrenergic receptors has been hypothesized to be associated with various anticholinergic, sedative and cardiovascular effects of other psychotropic drugs.

Pharmacokine tics

The single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of citalopram are linear and dose-proportional in a dose range of 10 mg/day to 60 mg/day. Biotransformation of citalopram is mainly hepatic, with a mean terminal half-life of about 35 hours. With once daily dosing, steady state plasma concentrations are achieved within approximately one week. At steady state, the extent of accumulation of citalopram in plasma, based on the half-life, is expected to be 2.5 times the plasma concentrations observed after a single dose.

Population Subgroups

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Citalopram hydrobromide tablets are indicated for the treatment of depression.

The efficacy of citalopram hydrobromide tablets in the treatment of depression was established in 4 to 6 week controlled trials of outpatients whose diagnosis corresponded most closely to the DSM-III and DSM-III-R category of major depressive disorder (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

A major depressive episode (DSM-IV) implies a prominent and relatively persistent (nearly every day for at least 2 weeks) depressed or dysphoric mood that usually interferes with daily functioning and includes at least five of the following nine symptoms: depressed mood, loss of interest in usual activities, significant change in weight and/or appetite, insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation or retardation, increased fatigue, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, slowed thinking or impaired concentration, a suicide attempt or suicidal ideation.

The antidepressant action of citalopram hydrobromide tablets in hospitalized depressed patients has not been adequately studied.

The efficacy of citalopram hydrobromide tablets in maintaining an antidepressant response for up to 24 weeks following 6 to 8 weeks of acute treatment was demonstrated in two placebo-controlled trials (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Nevertheless, the physician who elects to use citalopram hydrobromide tablets for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Concomitant use in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) is contraindicated (see WARNINGS).

Concomitant use in patients taking pimozide is contraindicated (see PRECAUTIONS).

Citalopram hydrobromide tablets are contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to citalopram or any of the inactive ingredients in citalopram hydrobromide tablets.

WARNINGS

Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk

Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs. Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide. There has been a long-standing concern, however, that antidepressants may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phases of treatment. Pooled analyses of short-term placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs and others) showed that these drugs increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents and young adults (ages 18 to 24) with major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older.

The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents with MDD, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 24 short-term trials of 9 antidepressant drugs in over 4400 patients. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in adults with MDD or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 295 short-term trials (median duration of 2 months) of 11 antidepressant drugs in over 77,000 patients. There was considerable variation in risk of suicidality among drugs, but a tendency toward an increase in the younger patients for almost all drugs studied. There were differences in absolute risk of suicidality across the different indications, with the highest incidence in MDD. The risk differences (drug vs. placebo), however, were relatively stable within age strata and across indications. These risk differences (drug-placebo difference in the number of cases of suicidality per 1000 patients treated) are provided in Table 1.

Table 1
Age RangeDrug-Placebo Difference in Number of Cases of Suicidality per 1000 Patients Treated
Drug-Related Increases
<1814 additional cases
18-245 additional cases
Drug-Related Decreases
25-641 fewer case
≥656 fewer cases

 

No suicides occurred in any of the pediatric trials. There were suicides in the adult trials, but the number was not sufficient to reach any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.

It is unknown whether the suicidality risk extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond several months. However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled maintenance trials in adults with depression that the use of antidepressants can delay the recurrence of depression.

All patients being treated with antidepressants for any indication should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes, either increases or decreases.

The following symptoms, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, and mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder as well as for other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric. Although a causal link between the emergence of such symptoms and either the worsening of depression and/or the emergence of suicidal impulses has not been established, there is concern that such symptoms may represent precursors to emerging suicidality.

Consideration should be given to changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing the medication, in patients whose depression is persistently worse, or who are experiencing emergent suicidality or symptoms that might be precursors to worsening depression or suicidality, especially if these symptoms are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient’s presenting symptoms.

If the decision has been made to discontinue treatment, medication should be tapered, as rapidly as is feasible, but with recognition that abrupt discontinuation can be associated with certain symptoms (see PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Discontinuation of Treatment with Citalopram Hydrobromide Tablets, for a description of the risks of discontinuation of citalopram hydrobromide).

Families and caregivers of patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder or other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric, should be alerted about the need to monitor patients for the emergence of agitation, irritability, unusual changes in behavior, and the other symptoms described above, as well as the emergence of suicidality, and to report such symptoms immediately to health care providers. Such monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers. Prescriptions for citalopram hydrobromide tablets should be written for the smallest quantity of tablets consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose.

Screening Patients for Bipolar Disorder

A major depressive episode may be the initial presentation of bipolar disorder. It is generally believed (though not established in controlled trials) that treating such an episode with an antidepressant alone may increase the likelihood of precipitation of a mixed/manic episode in patients at risk for bipolar disorder. Whether any of the symptoms described above represent such a conversion is unknown. However, prior to initiating treatment with an antidepressant, patients with depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression. It should be noted that citalopram hydrobromide tablets are not approved for use in treating bipolar depression.

Potential for Interaction with Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors

In patients receiving serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs in combination with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), there have been reports of serious, sometimes fatal, reactions including hyperthermia, rigidity, myoclonus, autonomic instability with possible rapid fluctuations of vital signs, and mental status changes that include extreme agitation progressing to delirium and coma. These reactions have also been reported in patients who have recently discontinued SSRI treatment and have been started on a MAOI. Some cases presented with features resembling neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Furthermore, limited animal data on the effects of combined use of SSRI’s and MAOI’s suggest that these drugs may act synergistically to elevate blood pressure and evoke behavioral excitation. Therefore, it is recommended that citalopram hydrobromide should not be used in combination with a MAOI, or within 14 days of discontinuing treatment with a MAOI. Similarly, at least 14 days should be allowed after stopping citalopram hydrobromide before starting a MAOI.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Information for Patients

Physicians are advised to discuss the following issues with patients for whom they prescribe citalopram hydrobromide:

Patients should be cautioned about the risk of serotonin syndrome with the concomitant use of citalopram hydrobromide and triptans, tramadol or other serotonergic agents.

Although in controlled studies citalopram hydrobromide has not been shown to impair psychomotor performance, any psychoactive drug may impair judgment, thinking or motor skills, so patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that citalopram hydrobromide therapy does not affect their ability to engage in such activities.

Patients should be told that, although citalopram hydrobromide has not been shown in experiments with normal subjects to increase the mental and motor skill impairments caused by alcohol, the concomitant use of citalopram hydrobromide and alcohol in depressed patients is not advised.

Patients should be advised to inform their physician if they are taking, or plan to take, any prescription or over-the-counter drugs, as there is a potential for interactions.

Patients should be cautioned about the concomitant use of citalopram hydrobromide and NSAIDs, aspirin, or other drugs that affect coagulation since the combined use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and these agents had been associated with an increased risk of bleeding.

Patients should be advised to notify their physician if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during therapy.

Patients should be advised to notify their physician if they are breast-feeding an infant.

While patients may notice improvement with citalopram hydrobromide therapy in 1 to 4 weeks, they should be advised to continue therapy as directed.

Prescribers or other health professionals should inform patients, their families and their caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with citalopram hydrobromide tablets and should counsel them in its appropriate use. A patient Medication Guide about “Antidepressant Medicines, Depression and other Serious Mental Illness, and Suicidal Thoughts or Actions” is available for citalopram hydrobromide tablets. The prescriber or health professional should instruct patients, their families, and their caregivers to read the Medication Guide and should assist them in understanding its spans. Patients should be given the opportunity to discuss the spans of the Medication Guide and to obtain answers to any questions they may have. The complete div of the Medication Guide is reprinted at the end of this document.

Patients should be advised of the following issues and asked to alert their prescriber if these occur while taking citalopram hydrobromide tablets.

Patients should be cautioned about the risk of serotonin syndrome with the concomitant use of citalopram and triptans, tramadol or other serotonergic agents.

Laboratory Tests

There are no specific laboratory tests recommended.

Interactions

Drug Interactions

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Pregnancy

Labor and Delivery

The effect of citalopram hydrobromide on labor and delivery in humans is unknown.

Nursing Mothers

As has been found to occur with many other drugs, citalopram is excreted in human breast milk. There have been two reports of infants experiencing excessive somnolence, decreased feeding, and weight loss in association with breast feeding from a citalopram-treated mother; in one case, the infant was reported to recover completely upon discontinuation of citalopram by its mother and in the second case, no follow-up information was available. The decision whether to continue or discontinue either nursing or citalopram hydrobromide therapy should take into account the risks of citalopram exposure for the infant and the benefits of citalopram hydrobromide treatment for the mother.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in the pediatric population have not been established (see BOX WARNING and WARNINGS, Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk). Two placebo-controlled trials in 407 pediatric patients with MDD have been conducted with citalopram hydrobromide tablets, and the data were not sufficient to support a claim for use in pediatric patients. Anyone considering the use of citalopram hydrobromide tablets in a child or adolescent must balance the potential risks with the clinical need.

Geriatric Use

Of 4422 patients in clinical studies of citalopram hydrobromide, 1357 were 60 and over, 1034 were 65 and over, and 457 were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Most elderly patients treated with citalopram hydrobromide in clinical trials received daily doses between 20 mg and 40 mg (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

In two pharmacokinetic studies, citalopram AUC was increased by 23% and 30%, respectively, in elderly subjects as compared to younger subjects, and its half-life was increased by 30% and 50%, respectively (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

20 mg/day is the recommended dose for most elderly patients (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The premarketing development program for citalopram hydrobromide included citalopram exposures in patients and/or normal subjects from 3 different groups of studies: 429 normal subjects in clinical pharmacology/pharmacokinetic studies; 4422 exposures from patients in controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials, corresponding to approximately 1370 patient exposure years. There were, in addition, over 19,000 exposures from mostly open-label, European postmarketing studies. The conditions and duration of treatment with citalopram hydrobromide varied greatly and included (in overlapping categories) open-label and double-blind studies, inpatient and outpatient studies, fixed-dose and dose-titration studies, and short-term and long-term exposure. Adverse reactions were assessed by collecting adverse events, results of physical examinations, vital signs, weights, laboratory analyses, ECGs, and results of ophthalmologic examinations.

Adverse events during exposure were obtained primarily by general inquiry and recorded by clinical investigators using terminology of their own choosing. Consequently, it is not possible to provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of individuals experiencing adverse events without first grouping similar types of events into a smaller number of standardized event categories. In the tables and tabulations that follow, standard World Health Organization (WHO) terminology has been used to classify reported adverse events.

The stated frequencies of adverse events represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, a treatment-emergent adverse event of the type uled. An event was considered treatment-emergent if it occurred for the first time or worsened while receiving therapy following baseline evaluation.

Adverse Findings Observed in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials

Adverse Events Occurring at an Incidence of 2% or More Among Citalopram Hydrobromide-Treated Patients

Table 3 enumerates the incidence, rounded to the nearest percent, of treatment-emergent adverse events that occurred among 1063 depressed patients who received citalopram hydrobromide at doses ranging from 10 mg/day to 80 mg/day in placebo-controlled trials of up to 6 weeks in duration. Events included are those occurring in 2% or more of patients treated with citalopram hydrobromide and for which the incidence in patients treated with citalopram hydrobromide was greater than the incidence in placebo-treated patients.

The prescriber should be aware that these figures cannot be used to predict the incidence of adverse events in the course of usual medical practice where patient characteristics and other factors differ from those which prevailed in the clinical trials. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigations involving different treatments, uses, and investigators. The cited figures, however, do provide the prescribing physician with some basis for estimating the relative contribution of drug and non-drug factors to the adverse event incidence rate in the population studied.

The only commonly observed adverse event that occurred in citalopram hydrobromide patients with an incidence of 5% or greater and at least twice the incidence in placebo patients was ejaculation disorder (primarily ejaculatory delay) in male patients (see TABLE 3).

Table 3 - Treatment-Emergent Adverse Events: Incidence in Placebo-Controlled Clinical TrialsEvents reported by at least 2% of patients treated with citalopram hydrobromide are reported, except for the following events which had an incidence on placebo ≥ citalopram hydrobromide: headache, asthenia, dizziness, constipation, palpitation, vision abnormal, sleep disorder, nervousness, pharyngitis, micturition disorder, back pain.
Body System/Adverse EventPercentage of Patients Reporting Event

Citalopram Hydrobromide

(N=1063)

Placebo

(N=446)
Autonomic Nervous System Disorders
Dry Mouth20%14%
Sweating Increased11%9%
Central and Peripheral Nervous System Disorders
Tremor8%6%
Gastrointestinal Disorders
Nausea21%14%
Diarrhea8%5%
Dyspepsia5%4%
Vomiting4%3%
Abdominal Pain3%2%
General
Fatigue5%3%
Fever2%<1%
Musculoskeletal System Disorders
Arthralgia2%1%
Myalgia2%1%
Psychiatric Disorders
Somnolence18%10%
Insomnia15%14%
Anxiety4%3%
Anorexia4%2%
Agitation3%1%
DysmenorrheaDenominator used was for females only (N=638 citalopram hydrobromide; N=252 placebo).3%2%
Libido Decreased2%<1%
Yawning2%<1%
Respiratory System Disorders
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection5%4%
Rhinitis5%3%
Sinusitis3%<1%
Urogenital
Ejaculation DisorderPrimarily ejaculatory delay.Denominator used was for males only (N=425 citalopram hydrobromide; N=194 placebo).6%1%
Impotence3%<1%

DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

Controlled Substance

Citalopram hydrobromide is not a controlled substance.

Physical and Psychological Dependence

Animal studies suggest that the abuse liability of citalopram hydrobromide is low. Citalopram hydrobromide has not been systematically studied in humans for its potential for abuse, tolerance, or physical dependence. The premarketing clinical experience with citalopram hydrobromide did not reveal any drug-seeking behavior. However, these observations were not systematic and it is not possible to predict on the basis of this limited experience the extent to which a CNS-active drug will be misused, diverted, and/or abused once marketed. Consequently, physicians should carefully evaluate citalopram hydrobromide patients for history of drug abuse and follow such patients closely, observing them for signs of misuse or abuse (e.g., development of tolerance, incrementations of dose, drug-seeking behavior).

Overdosage

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Initial Treatment

Citalopram hydrobromide tablets should be administered at an initial dose of 20 mg once daily, generally with an increase to a dose of 40 mg/day. Dose increases should usually occur in increments of 20 mg at intervals of no less than one week. Although certain patients may require a dose of 60 mg/day, the only study pertinent to dose response for effectiveness did not demonstrate an advantage for the 60 mg/day dose over the 40 mg/day dose; doses above 40 mg are therefore not ordinarily recommended.

Citalopram hydrobromide tablets should be administered once daily, in the morning or evening, with or without food.

Treatment of Pregnant Women During the Third Trimester

Neonates exposed to citalopram hydrobromide tablets and other SSRIs or SNRIs, late in the third trimester, have developed complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding (see PRECAUTIONS). When treating pregnant women with citalopram hydrobromide tablets during the third trimester, the physician should carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of treatment. The physician may consider tapering citalopram hydrobromide tablets in the third trimester.

Maintenance Treatment

It is generally agreed that acute episodes of depression require several months or longer of sustained pharmacologic therapy. Systematic evaluation of citalopram hydrobromide tablets in two studies has shown that its antidepressant efficacy is maintained for periods of up to 24 weeks following 6 or 8 weeks of initial treatment (32 weeks total). In one study, patients were assigned randomly to placebo or to the same dose of citalopram hydrobromide tablets (20 mg/day to 60 mg/day) during maintenance treatment as they had received during the acute stabilization phase, while in the other study, patients were assigned randomly to continuation of citalopram hydrobromide tablets 20 mg/day or 40 mg/day, or placebo, for maintenance treatment. In the latter study, the rates of relapse to depression were similar for the two dose groups (see Clinical Efficacy Trials under CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Based on these limited data, it is not known whether the dose of citalopram needed to maintain euthymia is identical to the dose needed to induce remission. If adverse reactions are bothersome, a decrease in dose to 20 mg/day can be considered.

Discontinuation of Treatment with Citalopram Hydrobromide Tablets

Symptoms associated with discontinuation of citalopram hydrobromide tablets and other SSRIs and SNRIs have been reported (see PRECAUTIONS). Patients should be monitored for these symptoms when discontinuing treatment. A gradual reduction in the dose rather than abrupt cessation is recommended whenever possible. If intolerable symptoms occur following a decrease in the dose or upon discontinuation of treatment, then resuming the previously prescribed dose may be considered. Subsequently, the physician may continue decreasing the dose but at a more gradual rate.

Switching Patients to or from a Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor

At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of an MAOI and initiation of citalopram hydrobromide tablets therapy. Similarly, at least 14 days should be allowed after stopping citalopram hydrobromide tablets before starting a MAOI (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS).

HOW SUPPLIED

Citalopram Hydrobromide Tablets (base) are supplied as:

10 mg, orange, capsule-shaped, film-coated tablets, debossed “E 371” on one side and plain on the other side, and are available in bottles of 100s and 1000s.

20 mg, light pink, biconvex, capsule-shaped film-coated tablets, debossed “A” on one side and score line in between “0” and “6” on the other side, and are available in bottles of 100s and 500s.

40 mg, white, biconvex, capsule-shaped film-coated tablets, debossed with “A” on one side and with a score line in between “0” and “7” on the other side, and are available in bottles of 100s and 500s.

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

ANIMAL TOXICITY

Retinal Changes in Rats

Pathologic changes (degeneration/atrophy) were observed in the retinas of albino rats in the 2-year carcinogenicity study with citalopram. There was an increase in both incidence and severity of retinal pathology in both male and female rats receiving 80 mg/kg/day (13 times the maximum recommended daily human dose of 60 mg on a mg/m2 basis). Similar findings were not present in rats receiving 24 mg/kg/day for two years, in mice treated for 18 months at doses up to 240 mg/kg/day or in dogs treated for one year at doses up to 20 mg/kg/day (4 times, 20 times and 10 times, respectively, the maximum recommended daily human dose on a mg/m2 basis).

Additional studies to investigate the mechanism for this pathology have not been performed, and the potential significance of this effect in humans has not been established.

Cardiovascular Changes in Dogs

In a one-year toxicology study, 5 of 10 beagle dogs receiving oral doses of 8 mg/kg/day (4 times the maximum recommended daily human dose of 60 mg on a mg/m2 basis) died suddenly between weeks 17 and 31 following initiation of treatment. Although appropriate data from that study are not available to directly compare plasma levels of citalopram (CT) and its metabolites, demethylcitalopram (DCT) and didemethylcitalopram (DDCT), to levels that have been achieved in humans, pharmacokinetic data indicate that the relative dog to human exposure was greater for the metabolites than for citalopram. Sudden deaths were not observed in rats at doses up to 120 mg/kg/day, which produced plasma levels of CT, DCT and DDCT similar to those observed in dogs at doses of 8 mg/kg/day. A subsequent intravenous dosing study demonstrated that in beagle dogs, DDCT caused QT prolongation, a known risk factor for the observed outcome in dogs. This effect occurred in dogs at doses producing peak DDCT plasma levels of 810 nM to 3250 nM (39 to155 times the mean steady state DDCT plasma level measured at the maximum recommended human daily dose of 60 mg). In dogs, peak DDCT plasma concentrations are approximately equal to peak CT plasma concentrations, whereas in humans, steady state DDCT plasma concentrations are less than 10% of steady state CT plasma concentrations. Assays of DDCT plasma concentrations in 2,020 citalopram treated individuals demonstrated that DDCT levels rarely exceeded 70 nM; the highest measured level of DDCT in human overdose was 138 nM. While DDCT is ordinarily present in humans at lower levels than in dogs, it is unknown whether there are individuals who may achieve higher DDCT levels. The possibility that DCT, a principal metabolite in humans, may prolong the QT interval in dogs has not been directly examined because DCT is rapidly converted to DDCT in that species.

Medication Guide

Antidepressant Medicines, Depression and other Serious Mental Illnesses,

and Suicidal Thoughts or Actions

Read the Medication Guide that comes with you or your family member’s antidepressant medicine. This Medication Guide is only about the risk of suicidal thoughts and actions with antidepressant medicines. Talk to your, or your family member’s, healthcare provider about:

  • all risks and benefits of treatment with antidepressant medicines
  • all treatment choices for depression or other serious mental illness

What is the most important information I should know about antidepressant medicines, depression and other serious mental illnesses, and suicidal thoughts or actions?

  • Antidepressant medicines may increase suicidal thoughts or actions in some children, teenagers, and young adults when the medicine is first started.
  • Depression and other serious mental illnesses are the most important causes of suicidal thoughts and actions. Some people may have a particularly high risk of having suicidal thoughts or actions. These include people who have (or have a family history of) bipolar illness (also called manic-depressive illness) or suicidal thoughts or actions.
  • How can I watch for and try to prevent suicidal thoughts and actions in myself or a family member?

Call a healthcare provider right away if you or your family member has any of the following symptoms, especially if they are new, worse, or worry you:

What else do I need to know about antidepressant medicines?

  • Never stop an antidepressant medicine without first talking to a healthcare provider. Stopping an antidepressant medicine suddenly can cause other symptoms.
  • Antidepressants are medicines used to treat depression and other illnesses. It is important to discuss all the risks of treating depression and also the risks of not treating it. Patients and their families or other caregivers should discuss all treatment choices with the healthcare provider, not just the use of antidepressants.
  • Antidepressant medicines have other side effects. Talk to the healthcare provider about the side effects of the medicine prescribed for you or your family member.
  • Antidepressant medicines can interact with other medicines. Know all of the medicines that you or your family member takes. Keep a ul of all medicines to show the healthcare provider. Do not start new medicines without first checking with your healthcare provider.
  • Not all antidepressant medicines prescribed for children are FDA approved for use in children. Talk to your child’s healthcare provider for more information.

This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for all antidepressants.

10 mg

Manufactured by

Sandoz Inc.

Princeton, NJ 08540

20 mg and 40 mg

Manufactured in India for

Sandoz Inc.

Princeton, NJ 08540

Rev. 06/07

MF0371REV06/07

OS8079

MG #22372

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