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CYANOCOBALAMIN
INJECTION, USP

Rx Only

DESCRIPTION

Cyanocobalamin Injection, USP is a sterile solution of cyanocobalamin for intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. Each mL contains 1000 mcg cyanocobalamin.

Each vial also contains Sodium Chloride, 0.9%. Benzyl Alcohol, 1.5%, is present as a preservative. Sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid may have been added during manufacture to adjust the pH (range 4.5-7.0).

Cyanocobalamin appears as dark red crystals or as an amorphous or crystalline red powder. It is very hygroscopic in the anhydrous form, and sparingly soluble in water (1:80). It is stable to autoclaving for short periods at 121°C. The vitamin B12 coenzymes are very unstable in light.

The chemical name is 5,6-dimethyl-benzimidazolyl cyanocobamide; the molecular formula is C63H88CoN14O14P. The cobalt span is 4.34%. The molecular weight is 1355.39.

The structural formula is represented below.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Vitamin B12 is essential to growth, cell reproduction, hematopoiesis, and nucleoprotein and myelin synthesis.

Cyanocobalamin is quantitatively and rapidly absorbed from intramuscular and subcutaneous sites of injection; the plasma level of the compound reaches its peak within 1 hour after intramuscular injection. Absorbed vitamin B12 is transported via specific B12 binding proteins, transcobalamin I and II to the various tissues. The liver is the main organ for vitamin B12 storage.

Within 48 hours after injection of 100 or 1000 mcg of vitamin B12, 50 to 98% of the injected dose may appear in the urine. The major portion is excreted within the first eight hours. Intravenous administration results in even more rapid excretion with little opportunity for liver storage.

Gastrointestinal absorption of vitamin B12 depends on the presence of sufficient intrinsic factor and calcium ions. Intrinsic factor deficiency causes pernicious anemia, which may be associated with subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. Prompt parenteral administration of vitamin B12 prevents progression of neurologic damage.

The average diet supplies about 5 to 15 mcg/day of vitamin B12 in a protein-bound form that is available for absorption after normal digestion. Vitamin B12 is not present in foods of plant origin, but is abundant in foods of animal origin. In people with normal absorption, deficiencies have been reported only in strict vegetarians who consume no products of animal origin (including no milk products or eggs).

Vitamin B12 is bound to intrinsic factor during transit through the stomach; separation occurs in the terminal ileum in the presence of calcium, and vitamin B12 enters the mucosal cell for absorption. It is then transported by the transcobalamin binding proteins. A small amount (approximately 1% of the total amount ingested) is absorbed by simple diffusion, but this mechanism is adequate only with very large doses. Oral absorption is considered too undependable to rely on in patients with pernicious anemia or other conditions resulting in malabsorption of vitamin B12.

Cyanocobalamin is the most widely used form of vitamin B12, and has hematopoietic activity apparently identical to that of the antianemia factor in purified liver extract. Hydroxycobalamin is equally as effective as cyanocobalamin, and they share the cobalamin molecular structure.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Cyanocobalamin is indicated for vitamin B12 deficiencies due to malabsorption which may be associated with the following conditions:

  •  Addisonian (pernicious) anemia
  •  Gastrointestinal pathology, dysfunction, or surgery, including gluten enteropathy or sprue, small bowel bacteria overgrowth, total or partial gastrectomy
  •  Fish tapeworm infestation
  •  Malignancy of pancreas or bowel
  •  Folic acid deficiency

It may be possible to treat the underlying disease by surgical correction of anatomic lesions leading to small bowel bacterial overgrowth, expulsion of fish tapeworm, discontinuation of drugs leading to vitamin malabsorption (see Drug Interactions), use of a gluten-free diet in nontropical sprue, or administration of antibiotics in tropical sprue. Such measures remove the need for long-term administration of cyanocobalamin.

Requirements of vitamin B12 in excess of normal (due to pregnancy, thyrotoxicosis, hemolytic anemia, hemorrhage, malignancy, hepatic and renal disease) can usually be met with oral supplementation.

Cyanocobalamin Injection, USP is also suitable for the vitamin B12 absorption test (Schilling test).

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Sensitivity to cobalt and/or vitamin B12 is a contraindication.

WARNINGS

Patients with early Leber's disease (hereditary optic nerve atrophy) who were treated with cyanocobalamin suffered severe and swift optic atrophy.

Hypokalemia and sudden death may occur in severe megaloblastic anemia which is treated intensely.

Anaphylactic shock and death have been reported after parenteral vitamin B12 administration. An intradermal test dose is recommended before Cyanocobalamin Injection, USP is administered to patients suspected of being sensitive to this drug.

This product contains Benzyl Alcohol. Benzyl Alcohol has been reported to be associated with a fatal "Gasping Syndrome" in premature infants.

This product contains aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.

Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.

PRECAUTIONS

ADVERSE REACTIONS

OVERDOSAGE

No overdosage has been reported with this drug.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Avoid using the intravenous route. Use of this product intravenously will result in almost all of the vitamin being lost in the urine.

HOW SUPPLIED

Cyanocobalamin Injection, USP 1000 mcg/mL

NDC 0517-0031-251 mL VialBoxes of 25
NDC 0517-0032-2510 mL Multiple Dose VialBoxes of 25
NDC 0517-0130-0130 mL Multiple Dose VialIndividually packaged
NDC 0517-0130-0530 mL Multiple Dose VialBoxes of 5

Store at controlled room temperature 15°-30°C (59°-86°F) (See USP).

PROTECT THE PRODUCT FROM LIGHT.

IN0031
Rev. 1/03
MG #10565

AMERICAN
REGENT, INC.
SHIRLEY, NY 11967

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