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INDOMETHACIN CAPSULES, USP
25 mg and 50 mg

Rx only

Cardiovascular Risk

  • NSAIDs may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may increase with duration of use. Patients with cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease may be at greater risk (see WARNINGS).
  • Indomethacin is contraindicated for the treatment of perioperative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS).

Gastrointestinal Risk

  • NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal events (see WARNINGS).

DESCRIPTION

Indomethacin Capsules, USP for oral administration are provided in two dosage strengths which contain either 25 mg or 50 mg of indomethacin. Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory indole derivative designated chemically as 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indole-3-acetic acid.

The structural formula is:

C19H16ClNO4       M.W. 357.79

Indomethacin, USP is practically insoluble in water and sparingly soluble in alcohol. It has a pKa of 4.5 and is stable in neutral or slightly acidic media and decomposes in strong alkali.

Each capsule for oral administration contains 25 mg or 50 mg of indomethacin and the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, gelatin, FD&C Green #3, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, powdered cellulose, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium starch glycolate, titanium dioxide and D&C Yellow #10.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits antipyretic and analgesic properties. Its mode of action, like that of other anti-inflammatory drugs, is not known. However, its therapeutic action is not due to pituitary-adrenal stimulation.

Indomethacin is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis in vitro. Concentrations are reached during therapy which have been demonstrated to have an effect in vivo as well. Prostaglandins sensitize afferent nerves and potentiate the action of bradykinin in inducing pain in animal models. Moreover, prostaglandins are known to be among the mediators of inflammation. Since indomethacin is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, its mode of action may be due to a decrease of prostaglandins in peripheral tissues.

Indomethacin has been shown to be an effective anti-inflammatory agent, appropriate for long-term use in rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and osteoarthritis.

Indomethacin affords relief of symptoms; it does not alter the progressive course of the underlying disease.

Indomethacin suppresses inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis as demonstrated by relief of pain, and reduction of fever, swelling and tenderness. Improvement in patients treated with indomethacin for rheumatoid arthritis has been demonstrated by a reduction in joint swelling, average number of joints involved, and morning stiffness; by increased mobility as demonstrated by a decrease in walking time; and by improved functional capability as demonstrated by an increase in grip strength. Indomethacin may enable the reduction of steroid dosage in patients receiving steroids for the more severe forms of rheumatoid arthritis. In such instances the steroid dosage should be reduced slowly and the patients followed very closely for any possible adverse effects.

Indomethacin has been reported to diminish basal and CO2 stimulated cerebral blood flow in healthy volunteers following acute oral and intravenous administration. In one study, after one week of treatment with orally administered indomethacin, this effect on basal cerebral blood flow had disappeared. The clinical significance of this effect has not been established.

Indomethacin capsules have been found effective in relieving the pain, reducing the fever, swelling, redness, and tenderness of acute gouty arthritis (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE).

Following single oral doses of indomethacin capsules 25 mg or 50 mg, indomethacin is readily absorbed, attaining peak plasma concentrations of about 1 and 2 mcg/mL, respectively, at about 2 hours. Orally administered indomethacin capsules are virtually 100% bioavailable, with 90% of the dose absorbed within 4 hours. A single 50 mg dose of indomethacin oral suspension was found to be bioequivalent to a 50 mg indomethacin capsule when each was administered with food.

Indomethacin is eliminated via renal excretion, metabolism, and biliary excretion. Indomethacin undergoes appreciable enterohepatic circulation. The mean half-life of indomethacin is estimated to be about 4.5 hours. With a typical therapeutic regimen of 25 or 50 mg t.i.d., the steady-state plasma concentrations of indomethacin are an average 1.4 times those following the first dose.

Indomethacin exists in the plasma as the parent drug and its desmethyl, desbenzoyl, and desmethyl-desbenzoyl metabolites, all in the unconjugated form. About 60 % of an oral dosage is recovered in urine as drug and metabolites (26 % as indomethacin and its glucuronide), and 33 % is recovered in feces (1.5 % as indomethacin).

About 99% of indomethacin is bound to protein in plasma over the expected range of therapeutic plasma concentrations. Indomethacin has been found to cross the blood-brain barrier and the placenta.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of indomethacin capsules and other treatment options before deciding to use indomethacin. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).

Indomethacin has been found effective in active stages of the following:

  • Moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis including acute flares of chronic disease.
  • Moderate to severe ankylosing spondylitis.
  • Moderate to severe osteoarthritis.
  • Acute painful shoulder (bursitis and/or tendinitis).
  • Acute gouty arthritis.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Indomethacin is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to indomethacin or the excipients (see DESCRIPTION).

Indomethacin should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients (see WARNINGS: Anaphylactic/Anaphylactoid Reactions, and PRECAUTIONS: General: Preexisting Asthma).

Indomethacin is contraindicated for the treatment of perioperative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS).

WARNINGS

Cardiovascular Effects

Gastrointestinal Effects

Renal Effects

Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug may cause a dose dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate over renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors, patients with volume depletion, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.

Increases in serum potassium concentration, including hyperkalemia, have been reported with use of indomethacin, even in some patients without renal impairment. In patients with normal renal function, these effects have been attributed to a hyporeninemic-hypoaldosteronism state (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions).

Anaphylactic/Anaphylactoid Reactions

As with other NSAIDs, anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions may occur in patients without known prior exposure to indomethacin. Indomethacin should not be given to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS: General: Preexisting Asthma). Emergency help should be sought in cases where an anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reaction occurs.

Skin Reactions

NSAIDs, including indomethacin, can cause serious skin adverse events such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Patients should be informed about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.

Pregnancy

In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, indomethacin should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.

Ocular Effects

Corneal deposits and retinal disturbances, including those of the macula, have been observed in some patients who had received prolonged therapy with indomethacin. The prescribing physician should be alert to the possible association between the changes noted and indomethacin. It is advisable to discontinue therapy if such changes are observed. Blurred vision may be a significant symptom and warrants a thorough ophthalmological examination. Since these changes may be asymptomatic, ophthalmologic examination at periodic intervals is desirable in patients where therapy is prolonged.

Central Nervous System Effects

Indomethacin may aggravate depression or other psychiatric disturbances, epilepsy, and parkinsonism, and should be used with considerable caution in patients with these conditions. If severe CNS adverse reactions develop, indomethacin should be discontinued.

Indomethacin may cause drowsiness; therefore, patients should be cautioned about engaging in activities requiring mental alertness and motor coordination, such as driving a car. Indomethacin may also cause headache. Headache which persists despite dosage reduction requires cessation of therapy with indomethacin.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Indomethacin cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered slowly if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids.

The pharmacological activity of indomethacin in reducing fever and inflammation may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions.

Information for Patients

Patients should be informed of the following information before initiating therapy with an NSAID and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to read the NSAID Medication Guide that accompanies each prescription dispensed.

  • Indomethacin, like other NSAIDs, may cause serious CV side effects, such as MI or stroke, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious CV events can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, slurring of speech, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up (see WARNINGS: Cardiovascular Effects).
  • Indomethacin, like other NSAIDs, can cause GI discomfort and, rarely, serious GI side effects, such as ulcers and bleeding, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative signs or symptoms including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up (see WARNINGS: Gastrointestinal Effects: Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation).
  • Indomethacin, like other NSAIDs, can cause serious skin side effects such as exfoliative dermatitis, SJS, and TEN, which may result in hospitalizations and even death. Although serious skin reactions may occur without warning, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of skin rash and bulers, fever, or other signs of hypersensitivity such as itching, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative signs or symptoms. Patients should be advised to stop the drug immediately if they develop any type of rash and contact their physicians as soon as possible.
  • Patients should promptly report signs or symptoms of unexplained weight gain or edema to their physicians.
  • Patients should be informed of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness and "flu-like" symptoms). If these occur, patients should be instructed to stop therapy and seek immediate medical therapy.
  • Patients should be informed of the signs of an anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reaction (e.g. difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). If these occur, patients should be instructed to seek immediate emergency help (see WARNINGS).
  • In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, indomethacin should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.

Laboratory Tests

Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, physicians should monitor for signs or symptoms of GI bleeding. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs should have their CBC and a chemistry profile checked periodically. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver or renal disease develop, systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.) or if abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, indomethacin should be discontinued.

Drug Interactions

Pregnancy

Labor and Delivery

In rat studies with NSAIDs, as with other drugs known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, an increased incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased pup survival occurred. The effects of indomethacin on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown.

Nursing Mothers

Indomethacin is excreted in the milk of lactating mothers. Indomethacin is not recommended for use in nursing mothers.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients 14 years of age and younger have not been established.

Indomethacin should not be prescribed for pediatric patients 14 years of age and younger unless toxicity or lack of efficacy associated with other drugs warrants the risk.

In experience with more than 900 pediatric patients reported in the literature or to the manufacturer who were treated with Capsules indomethacin, side effects in pediatric patients were comparable to those reported in adults. Experience in pediatric patients has been confined to the use of Capsules indomethacin.

If a decision is made to use indomethacin for pediatric patients 2 years of age or older, such patients should be monitored closely and periodic assessment of liver function is recommended. There have been cases of hepatotoxicity reported in pediatric patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, including fatalities. If indomethacin treatment is instituted, a suggested starting dose is 1 mg/kg/day given in divided doses. Maximum daily dosage should not exceed 4 mg/kg/day or 150 to 200 mg/day, whichever is less. As symptoms subside, the total daily dosage should be reduced to the lowest level required to control symptoms, or the drug should be discontinued.

Geriatric Use

As with any NSAID, caution should be exercised in treating the elderly (65 years and older) since advancing age appears to increase the possibility of adverse reactions (see WARNINGS, Gastrointestinal Effects: Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Elderly patients seem to tolerate ulceration or bleeding less well than other individuals and many spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in this population (see WARNINGS: Gastrointestinal Effects: Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation).

Indomethacin may cause confusion or, rarely, psychosis (see ADVERSE REACTIONS); physicians should remain alert to the possibility of such adverse effects in the elderly.

This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection and it may be useful to monitor renal function (see WARNINGS: Renal Effects).

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The adverse reactions for indomethacin capsules uled in the following table have been arranged into two groups: (1) incidence greater than 1%; and (2) incidence less than 1%. The incidence for group (1) was obtained from 33 double-blind controlled clinical trials reported in the literature (1,092 patients). The incidence for group (2) was based on reports in clinical trials, in the literature, and on voluntary reports since marketing. The probability of a causal relationship exists between indomethacin and these adverse reactions, some of which have been reported only rarely.

Incidence greater than 1%

GASTROINTESTINAL
nauseaReactions occurring in 3% to 9% of patients treated with indomethacin. (Those reactions occurring in less than 3% of the patients are unmarked.) with or without vomiting
dyspepsia (including indigestion, heartburn and epigastric pain)
diarrhea
abdominal distress or pain
constipation

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
headache (11.7%)
dizziness
vertigo
somnolence
depression and fatigue (including malaise and ullessness)

SPECIAL SENSES
tinnitus

CARDIOVASCULAR
none

METABOLIC
none

INTEGUMENTARY
none

HEMATOLOGIC
none

HYPERSENSITIVITY
none

GENITOURINARY
none

MISCELLANEOUS
none

Incidence less than 1%

GASTROINTESTINAL
anorexia
bloating (includes distention)
flatulence
peptic ulcer
gastroenteritis
rectal bleeding
proctitis
single or multiple ulcerations, including perforation and hemorrhage of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum or small and large intestines
intestinal ulceration associated with stenosis and obstruction
gastrointestinal bleeding without obvious ulcer formation and perforation of preexisting sigmoid lesions (diverticulum, carcinoma, etc.) development of ulcerative colitis and regional ileitis
ulcerative stomatitis
toxic hepatitis and jaundice (some fatal cases have been reported)
intestinal strictures (diaphragms)

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
anxiety (includes nervousness)
muscle weakness
involuntary muscle movements
insomnia
muzziness
psychic disturbances including psychotic episodes
mental confusion
drowsiness
light-headedness
syncope
paresthesia
aggravation of epilepsy and parkinsonism
depersonalization
coma
peripheral neuropathy
convulsions
dysarthria

SPECIAL SENSES
ocular-corneal deposits and retinal disturbances, including those of the macula, have been reported in some patients on prolonged therapy with indomethacin
blurred vision
diplopia
hearing disturbances, deafness

CARDIOVASCULAR
congestive heart failure
hypertension
hypotension
tachycardia
chest pain
arrhythmia; palpitations

METABOLIC
edema
weight gain
fluid retention
flushing or sweating
hyperglycemia
glycosuria
hyperkalemia

INTEGUMENTARY
pruritus
rash; urticaria
petechiae or ecchymosis
exfoliative dermatitis
erythema nodosum
loss of hair
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
erythema multiforme
toxic epidermal necrolysis

HEMATOLOGIC
leukopenia
bone marrow depression
anemia secondary to obvious or occult gastrointestinal bleeding
aplastic anemia
hemolytic anemia
agranulocytosis
thrombocytopenic purpura
disseminated intravascular coagulation

HYPERSENSITIVITY
acute anaphylaxis
acute respiratory distress
rapid fall in blood pressure resembling a shock-like state
angioedema
dyspnea
asthma
purpura
angiitis
pulmonary edema
fever

GENITOURINARY
hematuria
vaginal bleeding
proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, interstitial nephritis
BUN elevation
renal insufficiency, including renal failure

MISCELLANEOUS
epistaxis
breast changes, including enlargement and tenderness, or gynecomastia

Causal Relationship Unknown

Other reactions have been reported but occurred under circumstances where a causal relationship could not be established. However, in these rarely reported events, the possibility cannot be excluded. Therefore, these observations are being uled to serve as alerting information to physicians:

Cardiovascular: thrombophlebitis

Hematologic: Although there have been several reports of leukemia, the supporting information is weak.

Genitourinary: urinary frequency

A rare occurrence of fulminant necrotizing fasciitis, particularly in association with Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus, has been described in persons treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, including indomethacin, sometimes with fatal outcome (see also PRECAUTIONS: General).

OVERDOSAGE

The following symptoms may be observed following overdosage: nausea, vomiting, intense headache, dizziness, mental confusion, disorientation, or lethargy. There have been reports of paresthesias, numbness and convulsions.

Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. The stomach should be emptied as quickly as possible if the ingestion is recent. If vomiting has not occurred spontaneously, the patient should be induced to vomit with syrup of ipecac. If the patient is unable to vomit, gastric lavage should be performed. Once the stomach has been emptied, 25 or 50 g of activated charcoal may be given. Depending on the condition of the patient, close medical observation and nursing care may be required. The patient should be followed for several days because gastrointestinal ulceration and hemorrhage have been reported as adverse reactions of indomethacin. Use of antacids may be helpful.

The oral LD50 of indomethacin in mice and rats (based on 14 day mortality response) was 50 and 12 mg/kg, respectively.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of indomethacin and other treatment options before deciding to use indomethacin. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).

After observing the response to initial therapy with indomethacin, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient's needs.

Indomethacin is available as 25 mg and 50 mg capsules.

Adverse reactions appear to correlate with the size of the dose of indomethacin in most patients but not all. Therefore, every effort should be made to determine the smallest effective dosage for the individual patient.

Pediatric Use

Indomethacin ordinarily should not be prescribed for pediatric patients 14 years of age and under (see WARNINGS).

Adult Use

Dosage Recommendations for Active Stages of the Following:

  • 1.Moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis including acute flares of chronic disease; moderate to severe ankylosing spondylitis; and moderate to severe osteoarthritis.
     
    Suggested Dosage: Indomethacin capsules 25 mg b.i.d. or t.i.d. If this is well tolerated, increase the daily dosage by 25 or by 50 mg, if required by continuing symptoms, at weekly intervals until a satisfactory response is obtained or until a total daily dose of 150 to 200 mg is reached. DOSES ABOVE THIS AMOUNT GENERALLY DO NOT INCREASE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE DRUG.

In patients who have persistent night pain and/or morning stiffness, the giving of a large portion, up to a maximum of 100 mg, of the total daily dose at bedtime may be helpful in affording relief. The total daily dose should not exceed 200 mg. In acute flares of chronic rheumatoid arthritis, it may be necessary to increase the dosage by 25 mg or, if required, by 50 mg daily.

If minor adverse effects develop as the dosage is increased, reduce the dosage rapidly to a tolerated dose and OBSERVE THE PATIENT CLOSELY.

If severe adverse reactions occur, STOP THE DRUG. After the acute phase of the disease is under control, an attempt to reduce the daily dose should be made repeatedly until the patient is receiving the smallest effective dose or the drug is discontinued.

Careful instructions to, and observations of, the individual patient are essential to the prevention of serious, irreversible, including fatal, adverse reactions.

As advancing years appear to increase the possibility of adverse reactions, indomethacin should be used with greater care in the elderly (see PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use).

  • 2.Acute painful shoulder (bursitis and/or tendinitis).
     
    Initial Dose: 75 to 150 mg daily in 3 or 4 divided doses. The drug should be discontinued after the signs and symptoms of inflammation have been controlled for several days. The usual course of therapy is 7 to 14 days.
     
  • 3.Acute gouty arthritis.
     
    Suggested Dosage: Indomethacin capsules 50 mg t.i.d. until pain is tolerable. The dose should then be rapidly reduced to complete cessation of the drug. Definite relief of pain has been reported within 2 to 4 hours. Tenderness and heat usually subside in 24 to 36 hours, and swelling gradually disappears in 3 to 5 days.

HOW SUPPLIED

Indomethacin Capsules, USP are available containing either 25 mg or 50 mg of Indomethacin, USP.

The 25 mg capsule is a hard-shell gelatin capsule with a light green opaque cap and a light green opaque body axially printed with MYLAN over 143 in black ink on both the cap and body. The capsule is filled with a white powder blend. They are available as follows:

NDC 0378-0143-01
bottles of 100 capsules

NDC 0378-0143-10
bottles of 1000 capsules

The 50 mg capsule is a hard-shell gelatin capsule with a light green opaque cap and a light green opaque body axially printed with MYLAN over 147 in black ink on both the cap and body. The capsule is filled with a white powder blend. They are available as follows:

NDC 0378-0147-01
bottles of 100 capsules

NDC 0378-0147-05
bottles of 500 capsules

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP for Controlled Room Temperature.]

Protect from light.

Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.

PHARMACIST: Dispense a Medication Guide with each prescription.

Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Morgantown, WV 2650

AUGUST 2006
INDO:R25

Medication Guide for Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

(See the end of this Medication Guide for a ul of prescription NSAID medicines.)


What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?

  •  NSAID medicines may increase the chance of a heart attack or stroke that can lead to death. This chance increases:
     
    • with longer use of NSAID medicines
    • in people who have heart disease

     
  • NSAID medicines should never be used right before or after a heart surgery called a "coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)."
     

  • NSAID medicines can cause ulcers and bleeding in the stomach and intestines at any time during treatment. Ulcers and bleeding:
     
    • can happen without warning symptoms
    • may cause death

     
  • The chance of a person getting an ulcer or bleeding increases with:
     
    • taking medicines called "corticosteroids" and "anticoagulants"
    • longer use
    • smoking
    • drinking alcohol
    • older age
    • having poor health

     
  • NSAID medicines should only be used:
     
    • exactly as prescribed
    • at the lowest dose possible for your treatment
    • for the shortest time needed


What are Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?

NSAID medicines are used to treat pain and redness, swelling, and heat (inflammation) from medical conditions such as:

  • different types of arthritis
  • menstrual cramps and other types of short-term pain

Who should not take a Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)?

Do not take an NSAID medicine:

  • if you had an asthma attack, hives, or other allergic reaction with aspirin or any other NSAID medicine
  • for pain right before or after heart bypass surgery

Tell your healthcare provider:

  • about all of your medical conditions.
  • about all of the medicines you take. NSAIDs and some other medicines can interact with each other and cause serious side effects. Keep a ul of your medicines to show to your healthcare provider and pharmacist.
  • if you are pregnant. NSAID medicines should not be used by pregnant women late in their pregnancy.
  • if you are breastfeeding. Talk to your doctor.

What are the possible side effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?

Serious side effects include:Other side effects include:
  • heart attack
  • stroke
  • high blood pressure
  • heart failure from body swelling (fluid retention)
  • kidney problems including kidney failure
  • bleeding and ulcers in the stomach and intestine
  • low red blood cells (anemia)
  • life-threatening skin reactions
  • life-threatening allergic reactions
  • liver problems including liver failure
  • asthma attacks in people who have asthma
  • stomach pain
  • constipation
  • diarrhea
  • gas
  • heartburn
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • dizziness

Get emergency help right away if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • shortness of breath or trouble breathing
  • chest pain
  • weakness in one part or side of your body
  • slurred speech
  • swelling of the face or throat

Stop your NSAID medicine and call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • nausea
  • more tired or weaker than usual
  • itching
  • your skin or eyes look yellow
  • stomach pain
  • flu-like symptoms
  • vomit blood
  • there is blood in your bowel movement or it is black and sticky like tar
  • unusual weight gain
  • skin rash or bulers with fever
  • swelling of the arms and legs, hands and feet

These are not all the side effects with NSAID medicines. Talk to your healthcare provider or pharmacist for more information about NSAID medicines.

Other information about Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

Aspirin is an NSAID medicine but it does not increase the chance of a heart attack. Aspirin can cause bleeding in the brain, stomach, and intestines. Aspirin can also cause ulcers in the stomach and intestines. Some of these NSAID medicines are sold in lower doses without a prescription (over-the-counter). Talk to your healthcare provider before using over-the-counter NSAIDs for more than 10 days.

NSAID medicines that need a prescription

Generic NameTradename
CelecoxibCelebrex
DiclofenacCataflam, Voltaren, Arthrotec (combined with misoprostol)
DiflunisalDolobid
EtodolacLodine, Lodine XL
FenoprofenNalfon, Nalfon 200
FlurbiprofenAnsaid
IbuprofenMotrin, Tab-Profen, Vicoprofen (combined with hydrocodone), Combunox (combined with oxycodone)
IndomethacinIndocin, Indocin SR, Indo-Lemmon, Indomethagan
KetoprofenOruvail
KetorolacToradol
Mefenamic AcidPonstel
MeloxicamMobic
NabumetoneRelafen
NaproxenNaprosyn, Anaprox, Anaprox DS, EC-Naprosyn, Naprelan, Naprapac (copackaged with lansoprazole)
OxaprozinDaypro
PiroxicamFeldene
SulindacClinoril
TolmetinTolectin, Tolectin DS, Tolectin 600

This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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